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G is for Genius

Brainiac. Virtuoso. Polyhistor. Savant. Egghead. Prodigy. Sage. Bookworm. Natural. All of these are colloquial terms for genius, albeit the last definition of genius. Historically, genius is regarded as the guiding force, the tutelary spirit, the angel (or devil) on the shoulder. Let’s forgo the supernatural history and explore the mind-numbing diversity of today’s genius.

A brief consultation with the word-chronicling masters at Merriam Webster bring us their fifth and our operative definition of genius:

5. plural usually geniuses

a : a single strongly marked capacity or aptitude <had a genius for getting along with boys — Mary Ross>
b : extraordinary intellectual power especially as manifested in creative activity
c : a person endowed with transcendent mental superiority; especially : a person with a very high IQ

Geriatric

Considered by most in society, the 5c definition is merely outdated. In times gone by, genius was measured solely by intelligence quotient (IQ).

To qualify as genius to Leta Hollingworth, pioneer of education for exceptional children, and the most staunch advocates of the IQ test, subjects had to score over 180. To the academic community, who saw genius in their arenas, and Lewis Terman, who popularized the IQ testing in schools, the score of 140 heralded the title.

Leonardo da Vinci (self portrait) considered universal genius with estimated 220 IQ

Over the first few decades of the IQ test, significant changes were made to accommodate for evidence the test was skewed against certain ethnic groups, cultures and women. Simply, answers considered wrong for the sake of the test were correct when placed into the social context of the test subject.

Based on the fallibility of the test, and the growing number of test subjects from whom averages could be drawn, the numbers changed. Genius is recognized at the thresholds of 136 (98.770 percentile) and 162 (99.994 percentile).

Mensa celebrates those with very high IQ scores. The society only accepts those with scores above the 98th percentile (130.82) of the Stanford-Binet scale.

This level of intelligence is considered universal genius.

Gaps

The one thing the IQ test failed to recognize was not all people can be exemplary on a fully rounded scale. Where a person could be brilliant in mathematics, the same could fail miserably at chemistry. The 5a definition covers those who are adroit in one of the standard intelligence-measuring fields, but are average or lacking in others.

Stephen Hawking…estimated IQ shared with Einstein ~ 160

One of the most recognized geniuses of the modern age is Steven Hawking. The physicist and cosmologist is brilliant in his field, yet required an oral examination to get his baccalaureate from Oxford due to less than stellar grades.

This group is where savants reside. Typically, a savant is outstanding in one field or specialty, but handicapped in other areas. Pop culture was broadly introduced to savant tendencies in the Dustin Hoffman movie Rain Man, which featured an autistic man with extraordinary mathematical skills despite the mental and social retardation associated with autism.

Graphic

In the subjective fields, such as literature and art, genius is recognized under the 5b definition. While the argument has never been settled as to whether universal genius is needed to be a musical or artistic genius, it could not hurt. Sampling the average IQ of recognized and celebrated fiction writers and artists would bring a number in the low 150s. Compare this with the estimated 160 IQ assigned to Albert Einstein.

The ability to create has been recognized as genius for centuries. It includes the liberal arts in their totality:

  • Music
  • Art (sculpture, painting, etc.)
  • Philosophy
  • Literature
  • Performing Arts (acting, dancing, etc.)

Virtuoso and grand masters are all considered genius within their respective fields. Some of the most talented in the arts span large genre gamuts with skill, for example, in singing and writing or sculpture and acting.

Growing Up

Geniuses show their abilities early. They exhibit a great understanding of the world around them, a wisdom beyond their years. While this intuition may be centered on certain interests, they pursue and build upon it with enthusiastic energy. Their creative thinking offers the ability to solve problems without the jaded views of the impossible adults garner with age.

Many philosophers offer the theory genius can be stifled by the ignorance or misunderstanding which surrounds them in society and family. Bertrand Russell believed genius could be crushed by an unsympathetic environment during youth. Adults misunderstand a prodigy when they see it because they cannot grasp the concepts wielded by the child.

Grey Matter

MEG scan of the brain highlighting emotional response

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) all show the brains of geniuses in different light. MRI show more development in the physical parts of the prefrontal cortex and the superior parietal lobe (complex thinking and sensory perception, respectively). This gives rise to the nickname Egghead.

PET and MEG scans reveal the electrical impulses, which are thoughts traveling across the surface of the brain, move faster in smarter people. While this supports the theory smart people think faster, it also proves they are not using their brain more, only more efficiently.

Gonzo

There is a direct link between genius and mental illness. Science continues to struggle with the direct correlation between the activity of the genius brain and the chemical and physical brain malfunctions which result in a wide array of mental illnesses.

Giddy

And then there are the geniuses we create. He just may just be a little of all of the above.

Super Genius

Have you come in contact with a genius? Were you ever tested on the Stanford-Binet or Cattet scales for IQ? Who is your favorite created genius? Do you believe we all have genius ability on at least one level?

If you tweet or +1 this post, please use the hashtag #AtoZChallenge!


© Red Dwyer 2012
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37 Comments

  1. A direct link between Genius & Mental Illness??? Maybe I am a genius after all… Who’da thunk it???
    Thoroughly enjoyed the cartoon. I’ve never seen that particular one. When Wile E was sneaking up with the gun I was expecting him to quote Elmer “Be vewy qwiet, I’m hunting wabbit”.
    Tony McGurk recently posted..Securely Dispose Of Personal DocumentsMy Profile

    Reply
    • Red

       /  April 10, 2012

      Glad you did! There are very few episodes where Wile E. speaks at all. To my knowledge, there are no Wile E. cartoons which feature Fudd, and their stories lines never intersected. As far as I remember, their only interaction was for montage scenes used in the promotion of the Bugs Bunny-Road Runner Show (both runs, 60s & 70s).

      Yes, Wile E. is my geek thing. 😉

      Reply
  2. I believe it was said of Einstein “It wasn’t what he had, it’s what he did with it”.
    I think I am equally inspired by Genius and Clever.

    the IQ tests are frequently adjusted to keep the general population at a mean of 100. I know at one point they had to keep adjusting the difficulty upwards because we were getting smarter. Not sure which way the modification is now…
    el Guapo recently posted..Program Notes and TrifextraMy Profile

    Reply
    • Red

       /  April 10, 2012

      That is why Mensa finally gave up a number and started sticking to “top 2%”. We are being conditioned to fill in the bubbles better. And with so many people passing Myers-Briggs as a hobby or for jobs, we are better in tune with answering questions which make us more confident. Just what we need. A race of click-monkeys who can fill in dots. *sigh*

      Reply
  3. Bear

     /  April 20, 2012

    I don’t think I am a genius but I did post a very good number on the test. Having said that, some of my skills, such as writing, suffer. I don’t know when to put an end to a sentence.

    Reply
    • Red

       /  April 20, 2012

      That is cultural. Americans tend to run off at the mouth, and we tend to write the way we speak 😉

      Reply
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